Histone H3 is one of the five main histones involved in the structure of chromatin. H3 has a main globular domain and a long N-terminal tail, and is critical to maintaining the structure of the 'beads on a string' structure of nucleosomes. The N-terminus of H3 protrudes from the globular nucleosome core and is susceptible to post-translational modification. In fact, of the five histones, histone H3 is the one that undergoes the most extensive post-transcriptional modifications. The term “Histone H3” does not distinguish between sequence variants or modification state which play a large role in the dynamics and long-term regulation of genes. Histone H3 is an important protein in the emerging field of epigenetics, where its sequence variants and variable modification states are thought to play a role in the dynamic and long term regulation of genes.
Ray-Gallet D, Almouzni G. The Histone H3 Family and Its Deposition Pathways. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1283:17-42. doi: 10.1007/978-981-15-8104-5_2.
Zhu D, Zhang Y, Wang S. Histone citrullination: a new target for tumors. Mol Cancer. 2021 Jun 11;20(1):90. doi: 10.1186/s12943-021-01373-z.
Audia JE, Campbell RM. Histone Modifications and Cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2016 Apr 1;8(4):a019521. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a019521.
Hamam HJ, Palaniyar N. Post-Translational Modifications in NETosis and NETs-Mediated Diseases. Biomolecules. 2019 Aug 14;9(8):369. doi: 10.3390/biom9080369.